Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Print this page
Email this page
Small font size
Default font size
Increase font size
Home About us Current issue Archives Instructions Submission Subscribe Editorial Board Partners Contact e-Alerts Login 


 
   Table of Contents     
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 98-104
A study on the alterations in skin viscoelasticity before and after an intradermal administration of growth factor


Department of Dermatology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West16 Chuoku Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication17-Sep-2011
 

   Abstract 

Background: While photo-aging is believed to be preventable by the complete blockage of ultraviolet rays, there is no epoch-making method except sing fillers or autologous fat injection, for rejuvenating the skin once it has aged. Objective: Our group developed a new method for rejuvenating aged skin by the direct intradermal injection of basic fibroblast growth factor, the first method of its kind in the world. In this paper we report the results of long-term follow-up observations and alterations in skin viscoelasticity before and after this treatment. Materials and Methods: A single dose of growth factor was injected directly into aged skin of the dorsal surface of the hand intradermally. The skin viscoelasticity of 50 treated cases was measured by a cutometer just before the treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after treatment, respectively. Results: We observed the following rejuvenating effects: improved skin softness, gradual improvement of turgor, improved thickness of atrophied skin, and greatly improved viscoelasticity which reveals the improvement of biomechanical properties of the treated aged skin. According to the comparisons of viscoelasticity between pre- and post-treatment, the rejuvenated changes of R2 and R7 values were comparable to an age difference of more than 20 years. Conclusion: This method was confirmed to have excellent effects in rejuvenating aged skin safely and reliably including biomechanical properties. With this advance, we expect conventional non-physiological skin rejuvenating treatments to be replaced by a much more fundamental method using one-time injections of the growth factor.

Keywords: Anti-aging, biomechanical property, growth factor, photo--aging, rejuvenation, viscoelasticity

How to cite this article:
Ono I. A study on the alterations in skin viscoelasticity before and after an intradermal administration of growth factor. J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2011;4:98-104

How to cite this URL:
Ono I. A study on the alterations in skin viscoelasticity before and after an intradermal administration of growth factor. J Cutan Aesthet Surg [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Oct 19];4:98-104. Available from: http://www.jcasonline.com/text.asp?2011/4/2/98/85022



   Introduction Top


When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet (UV) rays over a long-period of time, the photo-aging phenomenon advances. The process visibly ages the skin of the face. [1],[2],[3] and the back of the hands [Figure 1]. While photo-aging is thought to be preventable by a complete blockage of UV rays, [4] there is no epoch-making method for rejuvenating the skin once it has aged. [3],[4] Treatments with fillers, [5],[6],[7],[8],[9] botulinus toxin injections, [10] autologous fat injection or lasers and intensive pulsed light [11] are ancillary and confer only temporary effects that wear off without repetitive, continuous treatment. [6]
Figure 1: When the dorsal surface of the hand skin is aged due to natural aging or exposure to UV rays, age-related conditions of the skin such as atrophy, reduced viscoelasticity, protuberant blood vessels, and see-through tendon tissue progress.

Click here to view



   Materials and Methods Top


Our group developed a method for rejuvenating the skin by administering a growth factor directly into the dermal portion of aged skin. The effective agent in the test solution was a commercially available growth-factor preparation delivered as a spray (basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF): Fibrast Spray TM , Kaken Pharma. Co., Tokyo, Japan). [12],[13],[14] The preparation has been available, in spray form only, since 2001, when it was approved as an ulcer treatment by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan. On November 23, 2007, after approval was obtained from the ethic committee for clinical studies of the Sapporo Medical University Hospital, a investigator-initiated clinical study was commenced to investigate whether or not the growth factor injected directly to a skin region with UV-induced photo-aging and atrophy would alleviate the conditions. To date, 185 hands (115 dorsal surfaces of right hands and 70 dorsal surfaces of left hands) of 126 subjects have been treated. A total of 193 injections have been administered to subjects with a mean age of 54.2 years. Before each treatment, the researcher and the patient observed the dorsal surfaces of both hands, and the side exhibiting stronger aging symptoms was treated first.

The treatment agent, bFGF, was adjusted to a concentration of 10 μg. For storage and treatment, the test solution was taken up directly into a 1 ml insulin syringe integrated with a 29G needle (BD Plastipack 326611, Becton, Dickinson and Company Japan, Fukushima, Japan) on a clean bench placed in an air clean room. Immediately after preparation, the divided solution was stored in a deep freezer at −80°C. The frozen solution was defrosted just before use and infused directly to the treated site. In the current clinical trial, a test solution prepared according to the above-described procedures was infused directly into the dermis of atrophic, UV-damaged skin under local anaesthesia. The infusion volume of the test solution per treatment was set at 0.2 ml (2 μg for bFGF) per cm2 of lesion, and the maximum total volume was set at 5 ml (50 μg FGF in total) for a single treatment session. This dose enabled the delivery of a single dose to almost the whole dorsal surface of the unilateral hand. After the treatment, the whole treated area was covered with adhesive tape [Figure 2]a-d. Because the treatment of administrating the growth factor was experimental, as a rule, the analyses were only conducted for cases treated with a single dose of the test solution. In cases where senile-pigmented macules were present at the treated site, the treatment was combined with irradiation by a long-pulse Alexandrite laser (Gentle LASE LE, Candela, Boston, MA, USA) in the confined regions of skin where the pigmented macules were observed, followed by topical application of a 4% hydroquinone ointment. Overall, 34% of the patients received partial laser irradiation. Following the treatment, the subjects were advised to completely shield the treated area from UV rays using a SPF 50+ sunscreen cream (2e, Maruho Co., Ltd. Osaka, Japan), to take vitamin C orally (Cinal, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), and to quit smoking.
Figure 2: Practice of the treatment. (a) Preparation with Xylocaine-treated tape. (b,c) A single dose of the infused test solution was administered at 0.2 ml/cm2. (d) After the treatment, the treated area was covered with adhesive tape.

Click here to view


Skin viscoelasticity determined by cutometer

A cutometer (Cutometer MPA 580, Courage & Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany) [15],[16] was used to measure the viscoelasticity, the biomechanical property of the skin just before the single dose of the test solution was injected and at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months after injection, in 50 treated cases. In brief, the measured skin was sucked up with a 2-second suction negative pressure at 300 mbar using a hand-piece with a suction pore of 2 mm in diameter, and released. The ratios of the displacement at 0.1 (Ur) and 2 seconds (R8=Ua) after the release to the displacement degree (R0=Uf) and keep-up were determined. The ratios R2=Ua/Uf and R7=Ur/Uf were recorded and analysed.

Before this comparison, the R2 and R7 values of 230 females in age groups from 10 to 90 years old (grouped by decade, 30 hands in each group) were measured and the normal alterations of skin viscoelasticity on the dorsal surface of the hand with aging were elucidated. Two sites on the dorsal surface were measured and the mean value was used for the analysis. The correlation between the viscoelasticity (R2, R7) and age was determined by regression multi-nominal analyses.

The viscoelasticity measured at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months after treatment was compared in the 50 hands treated [9] or more months earlier. Next, using the regression curve calculation formula for normal groups, the age corresponding to the measured skin viscoelasticity was determined and the treatment effect was evaluated by comparing the pre-treatment values with the values at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months after treatment.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's comparison test and regression multi-nominal analyses using Statview-J 4.02 (Abacus Concepts Inc., Berkley, CA, USA).


   Results Top


The clinical trial of this therapy with long-term follow-up demonstrated excellent rejuvenating effects on the dorsal surface of the hand. The rejuvenation observed was comparable to that observed in an earlier study with a short-term follow-up [13] assessing the skin of the hands and face. [12],[14] Specifically, a single intra-dermal administration of the test solution gradually improved the softness and turgor of the skin, thickened atrophic skin, and concealed protuberant vessels and see-through tendinous tissue in almost all of the treated cases. The rejuvenating effect progressed over time after the single treatment and lasted for 2 years or longer. Swelling of the skin was observed just after the treatment, but had fully subsided by the end of the second post-treatment week. Thereafter, the rejuvenating effect progressed gradually up to 6-9 months and was retained for 2 years or more. The effects were observed in all of the treated cases and there were no major harmful events except purpura of the treated site. As indicated, sufficient effects were elicited by only one local injection of bFGF.

Skin viscoelasticity measured by cutometer

The viscoelasticity of the skin in the normal age-groups was determined by the cutometer before the treatment, and the results indicated an age-dependent decrease of skin viscoelasticity. The correlations of R2 and R7 values with age were as follows: (R2) = 1.129 - 0.007 × (age) + 8.975 × 10 -6 × (age) 2 (correlation coefficient R=0.783) [Figure 3]; (R7)=1.194 - 0.019 × (age) + 1.006 × 10 -4 × (age) 2 (correlation coefficient R=0.812) [Figure 4].
Figure 3: Correlation between the R2 value and age in normal age groups

Click here to view
Figure 4: Correlation between the R7 value and age in normal age groups

Click here to view


Based on the normal variations in the dorsal surface of the hands, skin viscoelasticity was investigated before and after the growth factor treatment. The R2 value (post-2-second return rate) changed from 0.7289 ± 0.0670% (corresponding to an age of 61.23 years) before treatment to 0.8590 ± 0.0698 (corresponding to an age of 44.13 years) (P<0.0001) at 1 month post-treatment, 0.8842 ± 0.0448 (corresponding to an age of 40.24 years) (P<0.0001) at 3 months post-treatment, 0.8898 ± 0.0642 (corresponding to an age of 37.90 years) (P<0.0001) at 6 months post-treatment, and 0.9183 ± 0.0418 (corresponding to an age of 39.66 years) at 9 months post-treatment. Overall, the results indicate statistically significant rejuvenating effects corresponding to an age difference of 20 years or more (P<0.0001) [Figure 5].
Figure 5: Variation in R2 values over time after a single dose of bFGF (n=50)

Click here to view


Compared to the R2 values obtained at 1 month after treatment, the values obtained at 3 (P<0.05), 6 (P<0.01) and 9 months (P<0.0001) after treatment were significantly higher. R7, a value believed to represent the immediate elasticity (post-0.1-second return rate), changed from 0.4288 ± 0.908% (corresponding to an age of 57.80 years) before treatment to 0.5879 ± 0.1043 (corresponding to an age of 43.21 years) (P<0.0001) at 1 month post-treatment, 0.6131 ± 0.0952 (corresponding to an age of 41.08 years) (P<0.0001) at 3 months post-treatment, 0.6830 ± 0.0903 (corresponding to an age of 35.46 years) (P<0.0001) at 6 months post-treatment, and 0.7116 ± 0.0807 (corresponding to an age of 33.27 years) at 9 months post-treatment. These variations also indicate rejuvenating effects corresponding to an age difference of 20 years or more (P<0.0001) [Figure 6].
Figure 6: Alterations in the R7 value over time after a single dose of bFGF (n=50)

Click here to view


Clinical course of representative cases

Following is the summary of the clinical courses of several cases representative of the subjects who received the one-time treatment with the test solution. This manuscript presents longer term results of clinical follow-up, in addition to the results of the viscoelasticity measurements performed up to 9 months. The improvements lasted for longer than 9 months in almost all of the patients, and for longer than 2 years in some patients.

Case 1

A single dose of the test solution was infused to the dorsal surface of the right hand of a 44-year-old female. Nine months after the treatment, the skin turgor had increased markedly and protuberant venous veins were alleviated, indicating apparent rejuvenating effects. The favourable changes progressed up to the 12 post-treatment month and were retained thereafter. The detailed follow-up observation showed improvement for up to 21 months without any additional treatment [Figure 7]a-h.
Figure 7: Case 1: A 44-year-old female treated on the dorsal surface of the right hand. (a) Pre-treatment. (b) Post-treatment 1 month. (c) Post-treatment 3 months. (d) Post-treatment 5 months. (e) Post-treatment 9 months. (f) Post-treatment 12 months. (g) Post-treatment 16 months. (h) Post-treatment 21 months

Click here to view


Case 2

A single dose of the test solution was infused to the dorsal surface of the right hand of a 50-year-old female. The rejuvenating effects were apparent for up to 9 months after the treatment and remained up to the 31 st post-treatment month without any additional treatment [Figure 8]a-c.
Figure 8: Case 2: A 50-year-old female treated on the dorsal surface of the right hand. (a) Pre-treatment. (b) Post-treatment 9 months. (c) Post-treatment 31 months

Click here to view


Case 3

A single dose of the test solution was infused to the dorsal surface of the right hand of a 54-year-old female. Observation at 9 months after treatment revealed a marked increase of skin turgor and increased skin thickness, alleviation of protuberant veins and tendon, and marked alleviation of the recessed region between the extensor tendons and remained up to the 24th post-treatment month without any additional treatment [Figure 9]a-c.
Figure 9: Case 3: A 54-year-old female treated on the dorsal surface of the right hand. (a) Pre-treatment. (b) Post-treatment 9 months. (c) Post-treatment 24 months

Click here to view


Case 4

A single dose of the test solution was infused to the dorsal surface of the left hand of a 66-year-old female. Observation at 9 months after treatment revealed a marked increase of skin turgor with increased skin thickness and considerable alleviation of the protuberant veins and tendon, indicating remarkable rejuvenating effects. The effects have been retained to the present, or for 28 months post-treatment, without any additional treatment. This case proves that rejuvenating effects can be expected even among elderly subjects [Figure 10]a-c.
Figure 10: Case 4: A 66-year-old female treated on the dorsal surface of the left hand. (a) Pre-treatment. (b) Post-treatment 9 months. (c) Post-treatment 28 months

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


While complete UV blocking is thought to prevent photo-aging, no method has yet been developed to rejuvenate skin once it has aged. [1],[2],[3],[4] Meanwhile, the dramatic increases in average life expectancy in recent years place great demands on QOL in later life. From a cosmetic standpoint, a rejuvenating method with safe, reliable, and long-lasting effects is eagerly awaited. [4] The mainstay treatments for skin rejuvenation nowadays are cosmetic surgeries, epidermal resurfacing, skin tightening (lasers, high radio-frequency (RF), intense pulsed light, [9] etc.), and autologous fat injection. There are also popular treatments with temporal effects, such as filler injections and wrinkle-removal via neuroparalysis induced by neuroparalytic agents. [5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10] The injection of a platelet-suspended solution (PRP) [15],[16] has also gained attention, but the procedure is complicated and the effects vary from patient to patient and are undependable for the elderly. Broadly speaking, none of these treatments are fundamental or physiological, and none of them confer long-lasting or permanent effects. [17] Skin aging remains as a problem to be solved. [18],[19],[20]

A number of recent papers have drawn attention by reporting rejuvenating effects of growth factors applied topically. [21],[22],[23],[24] Yet we know from the molecular weights of growth factors that percutaneous absorption cannot be expected. In the method we developed for this study, the first method of its kind in the world, the growth factor is injected directly into the dermis of the affected skin. The treatment agent thus administered induces inflammation in the dermis at the affected site and thereby confers rejuvenating effects. Our growth factor is superior to conventional drugs for injection such as fillers and the botulinium toxin, as it exerts fundamental effects that are both safe and long lasting.

As we have already reported, [12],[13],[14] the test solution containing growth factor has superior effects on the dorsal surface of the hand. The present clinical trial is the first to use growth factor for rejuvenation, however, to use a long-pulse Alexandrite laser for the removal of pigmented macules. We applied this laser treatment in one third of our subjects and found that it had very little influence on the rejuvenation effect we report. The treatment of the senile pigmented macules by the long-pulse Alexandrite laser treatment was limited to sites with pigmented macules, and the rejuvenating effects induced by the growth factor in the laser-treated subjects were comparable to those in the subjects who received no laser treatment. We expect our growth factor treatment has potential for use as a rejuvenation therapy for the neck, trunk and extremities, as well as the face.

The duration of the effects we report, 2 or more years, is certainly epoch making, but we still need to investigate the duration of the effects more precisely in longer term follow-up observations. This doctor-directed clinical study spanning 3 years and 6 months confirmed that the treatment effects progressed gradually for the first 9 months to 1 year after the treatment, and that with a complete blockage of UV rays, the condition could be retained for 2 or more years. We assume that the excellent effects observed were attributable to factors beyond the oral vitamin C and UV block alone. As such, we speculate that the rejuvenating effects obtained in this study stemmed mainly from the intradermal administration of the growth factor.

Cutometer measurements from earlier studies have already demonstrated that skin viscoelasticity which indicates the biomechanical properties of the skin in normal age-groups decreases with age. [25],[26],[27],[28],[29] Similarly, the viscoelasticity of the dorsal surfaces of the hand decreased with age in all of the age-groups investigated in the current study. The R2 value was 90% or higher in subjects in their 20s and 30s and decreased linearly in subjects in their 40s onwards, and the value measured in subjects in their 60s or above was about half of the value measured in the young. Meanwhile, the R7 value decreased progressively from decade to decade starting from before the 30s, and the value measured in subjects in their 50s was about half of the value measured in the young. This clarified that skin viscoelasticity decreases with age and that R7, a value believed to reflect the immediate elasticity (post-0.1-second return rate), starts to decrease earlier than R2, a value indicated by the post-2-second return rate. Various factors expressed as solar elastosis, such as the drying and thinning of the skin and the degeneration and reduction of elastic and collagen fibres, are thought to be closely involved in this mechanism. In the observations of the dorsal surface of the hand, the R2 value changed from a level corresponding to an age of 61.2 years before treatment to a level corresponding to an age of 34.7 at 9 months after treatment. The R7 value changed from a level corresponding to an age of 57.8 years before treatment to a level corresponding to an age of 33.3 at 9 months after treatment. Thus, the changes in the R2 and R7 values, that is, the alterations in viscoelasticity which indicates the biomechanical properties of the treated aged skin, from pre-treatment to post-treatment, corresponded to age differences of more than 20 years (26 years and 24.5 years, respectively).

Many points remain to be solved before the mechanism behind the rejuvenating effects of the intradermal administration of growth factor is fully known. Various phenomena are involved in the treatment, including the induction of inflammation, subsequent cellular growth, neogenesis of elastic and collagen fibres, induction of fibroblast cell death, and the early disappearance of myofibroblasts. [30],[31],[32],[33] Moreover, the neogenesis of elastic and collagen fibres at the treated site may play a very important role. Subsequent studies have revealed that bFGF helps to reduce scarring when applied to suture wounds and confers similar treatment effects when applied to scars or keloids. There is strong evidence to suggest that apoptosis is involved in these effects. [34],[35],[36],[37],[38]

Although we have observed no serious harmful side effects, careful follow-ups will be required to determine the risk of inducing malignant tumours by the intracutaneous infusion of single doses of growth factor. We believe this treatment to be extremely safe in this regard. The test agent has been used clinically as a spray agent for the treatment of ulcers in Japan since 2001 without any major harmful events. Further, we encountered no critical harmful events involving carcinogenesis in our previous study on intradermal administration to suture wounds as a treatment to prevent scarring [34] . Another major problem in this treatment with growth factor is the pain caused by the intradermal infusion. This problem can be solved by sufficient local anesthesia before treatment, but the commercialization of products for local administration with less pain, the implementation of clinical studies, and legal approvals are all eagerly awaited.

None of our subjects manifested induration in the treated dorsal surfaces, but several of them did manifest facial induration at the early stage of our study. Because this phenomenon has not occurred since the administrations were limited carefully to dermis or sites just under the affected skin, it was inferred that the phenomenon occurring in the beginning was likely the result of an injection to the subcutaneous fat tissue or muscle layer as did with fillers. We were able to prevent this phenomenon by carefully localizing the injection to the dermis or to the sites just under the affected skin.

There have been no other reports on the rejuvenating effects of growth factor infused intradermally. This makes us the first group in the world ever to attempt this treatment approach. This test agent has been commercialized as a spray agent for treating ulcers, but only in three countries, that is, Japan, Korea, and China. Thus, direct infusion to the skin for the purpose stated in this study will require approval under the Helsinki Declaration and laws and regulations of concerned countries. The approval of ethic committees will also be essential. To this end, physicians sufficiently experienced and skilled in this field should confirm the safety of the test agent, create a uniform treatment method, and carefully conduct self-directed clinical studies. We also believe that it will be essential to conduct multi-centre joint studies to accurately evaluate the safety and effects of this treatment method and detect harmful events at an early stage.

Future progress and wide clinical application will require new adjective studies and strict attention to legal compliance to assure the safety of the subjects. Over time, we expect our growth factor treatment to be greatly accelerated by combinations of multiple growth factors in protein form or with peptides, or in gene form or with stem cells. [38],[39],[40],[41] Ultimately we hope to establish a new paradigm for creating an effective treatment strategy for growth factor rejuvenation.

 
   References Top

1.Wollina U, Goldman A, Berger U, Abdel-Naser MB. Esthetic and cosmetic dermatology. Dermatol Ther 2008;21:118-30.   Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Rohrich RJ. Advances in facial rejuvenation: Botulinum toxin A. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers, and combination therapies-consensus recommendations. Editor's Foreword. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;121(5 Suppl):1S-2.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Leyden JJ Clinical features of ageing skin. Br J Dermatol 1990;122 (Suppl 35):1-3.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Lowe NJ. Sunscreens and the prevention of skin aging. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1990;16:936-8.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Dayan SH, Bassichis BA. Facial dermal fillers: selection of appropriate products and techniques. Aesthet Surg J 2008;28:335-47.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Broder KW, Cohen SR. An overview of permanent and semipermanent fillers. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006;118:7S-14.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Wahl G. European evaluation of a new hyaluronic acid filler incorporating lidocaine. J Cosmet Dermatol 2008;7:298-303.   Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.de Arruda LH, Rocha FT, Rocha A. Studying the satisfaction of patients on the outcome of an aesthetic dermatological filler treatment. J Cosmet Dermatol 2008;7:246-50.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Carruthers JD, Glogau RG, Blitzer A. Advances in facial rejuvenation: Botulinum toxin type a, hyaluronic acid dermal fillers, and combination therapies-consensus recommendations. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;121(Suppl):5S-30.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Fagien S, Carruthers JD. A comprehensive review of patient-reported satisfaction with botulinum toxin type a for aesthetic procedures. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;122:1915-25.   Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Shin JW, Lee DH, Choi SY, Na JI, Park KC, Youn SW, et al. Objective and non-invasive evaluation of photorejuvenation effect with intense pulsed light treatment in Asian skin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011;25:516-22.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Ono I, Kamiya T, Kuwata Y, Hida T. Skin rejuvenation therapy by intradermal administration of a growth factor -Preliminary report-. J Anti Aging Conf 2008;4:65-9.   Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Ono I, Kamiya T, Kuwata Y, Hida T. Skin rejuvenation therapy on the dorsum of hands by intradermal administration of a growth factor - Evaluation of the improvement of skin viscoelasticity-. Skin Surgery 2009;18:137-45.   Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Ono I. Skin rejuvenation therapy by intradermal administration of growth factor. Aesthetic Derm 2010;20:248-63.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Callaghan TM, Wilhelm KP. A review of ageing and an examination of clinical methods in the assessment of ageing skin. Part I: Cellular and molecular perspectives of skin ageing. Int J Cosmet Sci 2008;30:313-22.   Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Callaghan TM, Wilhelm KP. A review of ageing and an examination of clinical methods in the assessment of ageing skin. Part 2: Clinical perspectives and clinical methods in the evaluation of ageing skin. Int J Cosmet Sci 2008;30:323-32.   Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Redaelli A, Romano D, Marcianó A. Face and neck revitalization with platelet-rich plasma (PRP): Clinical outcome in a series of 23 consecutively treated patients. J Drugs Dermatol 2010;9:466-72.   Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Reuther T, Bayrhammer J, Kerscher M: Effects of a three-session skin rejuvenation treatment using stabilized hyaluronic acid-based gel of non-animal origin on skin elasticity: A pilot study. Arch Dermatol Res 2010;302:37-45.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Shamban AT. Current and new treatments of photodamaged skin. Facial Plast Surg 2009;25:337-46.   Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Edwards C, Marks R: Evaluation of biomechanical properties of human skin. Clin Dermatol 1995;13:375-80.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Mehta RC, Fitzpatrick RE. Endogenous growth factors as cosmeceuticals. Dermatol Ther 2007;20:350-9.   Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Mehta RC, Smith SR, Grove GL, Ford RO, Canfield W, Donofrio LM, et al. Reduction in facial photodamage by a topical growth factor product. J Drugs Dermatol 2008;7:864-71.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Sundaram H, Mehta RC, Norine JA, Kircik L, Cook-Bolden FE, Atkin DH, et al. Topically applied physiologically balanced growth factors: A new paradigm of skin rejuvenation. J Drugs Dermatol 2009;8 (5 Suppl):4-13.   Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Atkin DH, Trookman NS, Rizer RL, Schreck LE, Ho ET, Gotz V, et al. Combination of physiologically balanced growth factors with antioxidants for reversal of facial photodamage. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2010;12:14-20.   Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Ahn S, Kim S, Lee H, Moon S, Chang I. Correlation between a cutometer and quantitative evaluation using Moire topography in age-related skin elasticity. Skin Res Technol 2007;13:280-4.   Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Ohshima H, Tada A, Kanamaru A, Akamatsu H, Sakai Y, Itoh M, et al. Relevance of the directionality of skin elasticity to aging and sagging of the face. Skin Res Technol 2011;17:101-7.   Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Krueger N, Luebberding S, Oltmer M, Streker M, Kerscher M. Age-related changes in skin mechanical properties: A quantitative evaluation of 120 female subjects. Skin Res Technol 2010;10:1600.   Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Ryu HS, Joo YH, Kim SO, Park KC, Youn SW. Influence of age and regional differences on skin elasticity as measured by the cutometer. Skin Res Technol 2008;14:354-8.   Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Boyer G, Laquièze L, Le Bot A, Laquièze S, Zahouani H. Dynamic indentation on human skin in vivo: Ageing effects. Skin Res Technol 2009;15:55-67.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Zahouani H, Pailler-Mattei C, Sohm B, Vargiolu R, Cenizo V, Debret R. Characterization of the mechanical properties of a dermal equivalent compared with human skin in vivo by indentation and static friction tests. Skin Res Technol 2009;15:68-76.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Grotendorst GR. Chemoattractants and growth factors. In Wound Healing. In: Cohen IK, Diegelmann RF, Lindblad WJ, editors. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.; 1992. p. 237-46.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Ono I, Inoue M, Tateshita T. Effects of a collagen matrix containing basic fibroblast growth factor on wound contraction. J Biomed Materi Res App Biomat 1999;48:621-30.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Ono I. The effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the breaking strength of acute incisional wounds. J Dermatol Sic 2002;29:104-13.   Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Ono I, Akasaka Y, Kikuchi R, Sakemoto A, Kamiya T, Yamashita T, et al. Basic fibroblast growth factor reduces scar formation in acute incisional wounds. Wound Repair Regen 2007;15:617-23.   Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Akasaka Y, Ono I, Tominaga A, Ishikawa Y, Ito K, Suzuki T, et al. Basic fibroblast growth factor in an artificial dermis promotes apoptosis and inhibits expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, leading to reduction of wound contraction. Wound Repair Regen 2007;15:378-89.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Akasaka Y, Ito K, Fujita K, Komiyama K, Ono I, Ishikawa Y, et al. Activated caspase expression and apoptosis increase in keloids: Cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation during the apoptosis of keloid fibroblast lines. Wound Repair Regen 2005;13:373-82.   Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Zhong J, Hu N, Xiong X, Lei Q, Li L. A novel promising therapy for skin aging: Dermal multipotent stem cells against photoaged skin by activation of TGF-βsSmad and p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Med Hypotheses 2011;76:343-6.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Akasaka Y, Ono I, Kamiya T, Ishikawa Y, Kinoshita T, Ishiguro S, et al. The mechanisms underlying fibroblast apoptosis regulated by growth factors during wound healing. J Pathol 2010;221:285-99.   Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Song SY, Jung JE, Jeon YR, Tark KC, Lew DH. Determination of adipose-derived stem cell application on photo-aged fibroblasts, based on paracrine function. Cytotherapy 2011;3:378-84.   Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Kim WS, Park BS, Park SH, Kim HK, Sung JH. Antiwrinkle effect of adipose-derived stem cell: Activation of dermal fibroblast by secretory factors. J Dermatol Sci 2009;53:96-102.   Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Cufí S, Vazquez-Martin A, Oliveras-Ferraros C, Martin-Castillo B, Joven J, Menendez JA. Metformin against TGFâ-induced epithelial-to- mesenchymal transition (EMT): From cancer stem cells to aging-associated fibrosis. Cell Cycle 2010;9:4461-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Ichiro Ono
Department of Dermatology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West16 Chuoku Sapporo-060-8543, Hokkaido
Japan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-2077.85022

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10]

This article has been cited by
1 The effect of probe to skin contact force on Cutometer MPA 580 measurements
James P. Bonaparte,David Ellis,Jeffson Chung
Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology. 2013; 37(3): 208
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed6260    
    Printed201    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded256    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal